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The rise of charter schools has sparked a fledging industry that generates billions of dollars nationwide each year. Georgia laws require charter schools to be nonprofit public schools, but they're allowed to hire for-profit management companies to run either all or part of the school. Some amendment opponents think that reviving the commission could open the door for these companies, many of which are based outside the state, to make a potential killing.
"Amendment one is not about charter schools. It's about who's funding charter schools," Gwinnett County Schools CEO and Superintendent Alvin Wilbanks said during a late October Atlanta Press Club debate.
Public school teachers and administrators, many of whom have watched their budgets get slashed over the past decade, make up some of the amendment's most outspoken detractors. They argue that authorizing new charters rather than increasing the budgets of already existing public schools would continue to spread dwindling state education funds even thinner.
"In an era when we have so many school systems with fewer than 180 days, teacher furloughs, and schools with overcrowded classrooms, we're looking at more of that if amendment one passes," says Jane Langley, a spokesperson for Vote Smart Georgia, an advocacy group fighting the amendment.
Longtime City Schools of Decatur board member Valerie Wilson concurred with that position during last month's Atlanta Press Club debate, saying, "existing public schools have never been adequately funded."
Georgia's foray into charter schools began in 1995, when Marietta's Addison Elementary School took advantage of a law passed by the General Assembly two years earlier, allowing traditional public schools to convert into charter schools. The Charter Schools Act of 1998 followed, providing the opportunity for new start-up charter schools to be established.
While school districts in metro Atlanta have, for the most part, approved charters based on their applications' strength, that hasn't necessarily been the case statewide. For applicants in many districts, it was almost impossible to create alternative education options for a number of reasons ranging from philosophical opposition to a simple lack of awareness.
In 2008, the Republican-controlled Legislature formed the Georgia Charter Schools Commission to fix this rejection dilemma and create "state-chartered special schools." The state commission also consulted with potential charter applicants and promoted charter schools where they didn't exist.
Last year, the Georgia Supreme Court deemed the commission unconstitutional in a slim 4-3 decision. The ruling dissolved the group and returned primary control of authorizing charter schools back to local boards. As a result, roughly one-tenth of Georgia's charter schools, including the Museum School and Ivy Preparatory Academy, saw their commission-approved contracts invalidated. In the wake of the court's decision, the schools had to scramble and reapply for charters from their local boards.
Earlier this year, state lawmakers returned to the Gold Dome and passed legislation that would allow voters to turn the clock back to 2008.
Phil Andrews, a longtime charter schools consultant and former executive director of the Georgia Charter Schools Association, thinks the commission is essential to the charter school process.
"If your local school systems are the only entity that can approve charter schools ... [then they] have a monopoly if there's not a separate statewide entity," he says.
Those rallying against the amendment argue that the reinstatement of a state-level charter authorizer bypasses local board members, the elected officials selected by the people living in their districts. Instead, the commission would be filled with members handpicked by the governor, lieutenant governor, and speaker of the House. Gov. Nathan Deal is one of the amendment's staunchest supporters.
"It's important to emphasize that this is not about [what] charter schools are or whether they perform or don't," State Sen. Vincent Fort, D-Atlanta, said during an anti-amendment speech held at the Gold Dome last month. "It's about whether local schools will have their power usurped [or] taken away from them."
Amendment opponents, including Langley, think that the commission "adds another layer of bureaucracy" that's simply not needed. Verdallia Turner, President of the Georgia Federation of Teachers, agrees.
"Local boards of education don't frivolously grant charters and they shouldn't," she says. "If those applications are turned down, you can go through the Department of Education."
Some advocates say they need alternatives because traditional public schools don't always meet a student's educational needs. According to the Georgia Department of Education, only one-third of state's public county school districts have charter schools. Many proponents, including Museum School board member Brian Deutsch, prefer that students have "as many choices as possible." Right now, it's difficult, some say almost impossible, for applicants in many districts to create charter schools.
"Sometimes local control doesn't work," Families for Better Public Schools spokesman Bert Brantley says. "And so as much as I believe in that, I think there should also be a check and an appeal if possible."
Choice is one of the primary reasons that charter schools have become so popular among supporters. It's not hard to see why people want that option either, considering that Georgia's high school graduation rates rank 47th in the nation. Likewise, it's tough to determine if those numbers are the by-product of underperforming traditional public schools or reflect a failure to adequately support what many would call a broken education system.
Is the charter school movement a step in the right direction toward fixing the state's education problems? Georgians will decide on Election Day.
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